Thursday, August 27, 2020
Mattel Inc - Research Paper Example ategy that came about to the securing of the Leaning Company decreased the administration capacity to complete the typical quality review of the organization items (Erika 28). This was the procedure that diminished the organization achievement and nature of the items than the envisioned. Fundamentally, the organization believed that the broadening of its business would give it a lead in the production of correspondence materials, not realizing that the expense of activity would be hugely increment. Too, the extension expanded the activity cost, making the organization to burn through billions of US dollars in running the every day exercises (Wooten and Erika 7). At the point when the Leaning Company began enrolling misfortunes, Mattel needed to put forth an attempt to defend the effects this would cause in the organization (Segundo 1). They needed to pay the obligations that the obtained organization made, in this manner, influencing their money related position. Thus, the organization amassed misfortunes, adding up to $475 million, in 1997 (Erika 33). This was the start of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s bad dream in keeping up the expense of activity and nature of the items. Furthermore, the normal blast in the web deals of the toys didn't yield the result (Segundo 1). To be sure, the web deals focused on the world market, and consistent client requests. Rather, the organization recorded misfortune from the endeavor, in this way exacerbating its monetary position. Third, the raised work prerequisite additionally didn't function admirably for the organization. Accordingly, the organization set out on an occupation cut, to lessen the costs. In further diminishing the cost, the organization picked to utilize modest materials in making the toys. Indeed, the materials didn't meet the quality necessities, making the items to be an ecological and wellbeing risks to the clients (Erika 39). In particular, the shading component that the organization utilized in making the toys contained high measure of lead that surpassed the cutoff that the legislature had set. In rundown, the difficult that came about to the
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The tale Jane Eyre was initially distributed in London, England in 1847 by Smith, Elder and Co. The early releases of the novel were given the caption An Autobiography and named Ã¢â¬Å"Currer BellÃ¢â¬ as the manager, not the creator. The caption was dropped in ensuing versions of the novel. During the days when the novel was distributed, it was famously accepted that people had various obligations and duties. Ladies were urged to be committed and accommodating to their spouses. The perfect lady was inactive, enchanting, generous and unadulterated. Jane Eyre and different works of the Charlotte and her sisters were revolved around the lives of heroes who didn't adjust to these cultural goals. Along these lines, so as to conceal their actual personalities and sexual orientations, the three Bronte sisters distributed their works under pen names. These were Acton Bell (Anne Bronte), Ellis Bell (Emily Bronte) and Currer Bell (Charlotte Bronte). In spite of its prompt notoriety, Jane Eyre was censured by its most punctual pundits as against Christian. These negative audits can be credited to the for the most part insubordinate tone of the novel. Through the depiction of the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s life, including those identified with her societal position and matters of the heart, the peruser is given a few social and policy centered issues. The tale questions societyÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective on ladies, the significance of human expressions and the premise of a strong marriage. In light of the principles of the general public in the days when the novel was first distributed, Jane Eyre as a character lead an improper life. Jane experienced passionate feelings for and longed for a wedded man, was proposed to by her cousin, and portrays a ministers as fraudulent and voracious. The tale is written in such a way, that the peruser sympathizes with Jane, and in doing as such, drives the peruser to scrutinize their convictions. The epic is additionally expressly against Christian in that Jane addresses the presence and significance of God. During her days at Lowood, JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s dear companion, Helen Burns contracts tuberculosis. On her deathbed, Helen smoothly consoles Jane that by kicking the bucket youthful, she is getting away from extraordinary sufferings, and will go to God. Jane stays wary, and asks, Ã¢â¬Å"Where is God? What is God? Ã¢â¬ In a similar discussion, Jane questions the presence of paradise and the capacity of individuals to enter it. Utilizing contemporary principles, these inquiries may be considered by some to be ordinary and even sound. In any case, with regards to the general public during when the novel was first distributed, such remarks would have been considered as godless and horribly improper. Pundits who accepted that the novel was in certainty a collection of memoirs were right. Despite the fact that the life of the character Jane Eyre isn't indistinguishable from that of the creator Charlotte Bronte, there are evident equals. For instance, while going to Lowood School, one of JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s dearest companions kicks the bucket of utilization. So also, while going to class at Cowan Bridge, JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s sisters passed on of a similar ailment. This fortuitous event drew correlations between the anecdotal director of Lowood whom Jane criticizes as untrustworthy and beguiling, and CharlotteÃ¢â¬â¢s own previous dean who ran Cowan Bridge. Another equal can be drawn between the character of John Reed and CharlotteÃ¢â¬â¢s sibling Branwell, on the grounds that the two men experienced liquor addiction. Maybe the most clear closeness between the novel and the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s life is the way that both Jane and Charlotte were tutors. In tolerating Jane Eyre as the genuine experiences of its courageous woman and by marking the novel as against Christian, early pundits were right. Because of similitudes in the individual existence of Charlotte Bronte and the encounters of Jane Eyre, it very well may be derived that the novel is a collection of memoirs. In view of the measures of society during the time it was first distributed, the insubordinate tone and the way wherein the novel addressed regarded social foundations, the novel can be considered as against Christian.
Friday, August 21, 2020
How to Write the Syracuse University Supplement 2019-2020 Syracuse is a private research university in Syracuse, New York. About 15,000 undergraduate students attend the school that is located on top of a hill overlooking the city. The acceptance rate is around 50%. Who or what influenced you to apply to Syracuse University? (250 words) If youâre a potential legacy student at Syracuse, meaning that someone in your immediate family attended the school, itâs fair to say that they introduced you to school. But after doing so, research the school and find reasons for wanting to attend outside of your familial ties to campus. If you have no ties to the school, jump straight to the research process. The most common answer for âwhatâ influenced you to apply would be that Syracuse came up in your search for the best âXâ program that youâre applying to. The school gets especially high praise in the fields of broadcast journalism and special education. After youâve nailed that down, write about why youâre interested in the progra m by linking what youâve done in the past to how you can further your goals at the school. So, if you do on camera work for your schoolâs website and write for the newspaper, it makes sense that you would want to go to Syracuse to study broadcast and digital journalism. Looking for a who? You could look at notable people (think professors and alumni) who attended the school. This is a research assignment, so research! Do a deep dive beyond their career track and try to find out as much as you can. If you really look up to this person, it shouldnât be hard. Explain why this person has influenced you to apply. Who is the person you dream of becoming and how do you believe Syracuse University can help you achieve this? (250 words)This question is harder than the first because you need to 1) think of your person and then 2) find specific offerings at Syracuse that will help you become the person you hope to eventually morph into. There are two ways to describe the person: Name t he person. âI dream of becoming the next Walter Cronkite.âDescribe a fictitious person in broad strokes. Ex: âI dream of becoming a business savvy philanthropist.â Whatever you choose, keep the unique qualities and expertise of the person at the forefront of your brain. Actually, make a list. Then find classes that will help you get there. If youâre going the Walter Cronkite route, look at the course catalogue from the broadcast and digital journalism program. For example two, start with business courses and then look at the citizenship and civic engagement major. The major offers courses on Poverty, Policy and Human Services; and Critical Issues for the United States. Explain why taking those classes will help you get closer to where you want to be. A few donât to keep in mind:Donât say you want to be a billionaire. (Thereâs nothing wrong with that, but it doesnât show much depth.)Donât pick someone problematic who has undergone public scrutiny. Donât go fo r overtly obvious answers. (Itâs okay if your person needs a bit of explanation.) Donât pick the same âwhoâ from the first prompt. Weâre pros at helping students figure out where they want to apply. Contact us here if you want to work with someone one-on-one.
Monday, May 25, 2020
The Misinterpretation of the Concept of Jihad Is the Reason behind the Clash within Different Sects of Islam Free Essay Example, 1500 words
The misinterpretation of the term jihad beyond its meaning resulted in its double meaning and misuse. As pointed out, misinterpretation altered the basic meaning of jihad beyond its spiritual undertone. In a real sense, the concept of jihad helped the prophet to strengthen cohesiveness among the believers of monotheism. To be specific, jihad was helpful for Islamic believers to maintain supremacy over other religious groups in the Middle East. The prophet depended upon the violent aspect of jihad to maintain his supremacy within his public sphere. Gradually, some of the believers began to consider that holy war is their duty towards their religious belief. Halim Rane states that Many contemporary scholars consider peace to be a certain aim of Islam, but view the use of armed force as necessary in certain circumstances (142). This difference in interpretation resulted in violence and bloodshed related to religious belief. So, one can see that the real aim of jihad is not to kill the non-believers, but to restore peaceful coexistence among different religious groups. One can see that the meaning of jihad differs from groups and individuals. We will write a custom essay sample on The Misinterpretation of the Concept of Jihad Is the Reason behind the Clash within Different Sects of Islam or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page To be specific, the innocent believers thought that the ultimate aim of the jihadists is to restore peace and to regain the lost popularity of Islam. When the fundamentalists began to introduce strict laws (say, Sharia), the believers protested, but for vain.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
War on Women: the Gender War caused by Radical Feminism Many will agree the United StatesÃ¢â¬â and the worldÃ¢â¬â has come a long way in providing civil rights to all, regardless of race, religion, sex, and sexuality, among others. However, not all will agree to thisÃ¢â¬â namely those who self-identify as Ã¢â¬Å"feminist.Ã¢â¬ Before I continue discussing the issue, I must disclaim I am of course in favor of equal rights and supporting those who have had rights deniedÃ¢â¬â sometimes called Ã¢â¬Å"equity feminism.Ã¢â¬ However, the Ã¢â¬Å"nobilityÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â for lack of a better wordÃ¢â¬â of feminism has become diminished by the actions and views of the contemporary women s movement as a whole, which is often regarded to as Ã¢â¬Å"radical feminism.Ã¢â¬ In this, I hope to outline the logisticalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Again, I attribute this not only to the modern feminist movement but to society as a whole; however, I have noticed a trend among feminist leaders who blindly accept statistics without further examination and believe them to be true. This blind faith in statistics contributes to what I believe to be a wild overstatement of oppression in a society of prosperous women. For example, many feminists are eager to cite the common statistic that women earn, on average, only 76 cents for every dollar a man earns. Furthermore, it was found males were six times more likely enter science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields than females. In order to combat this Ã¢â¬Å"problem,Ã¢â¬ there exists the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Educational Equity movement, which uses the equity law Title IX to advance women in STEM fields through grants and programs specifically designed to Ã¢â¬Å"increase opportunities for women in technologically demanding workplacesÃ¢â¬ (CITE THE ACT HERE). This movement is made with the assumption that sexism and discrimination are the primary reasons why there are fewer women than men in STEM fields. Howev er, when women account for 57% of all BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s Degrees and 59% of Master s Degrees in 2011 it suggests there is not a lack of opportunity, but a lack of interest. The wage gap is a byproduct of thisÃ¢â¬â it fails to account for high paying jobs found in high echelons (e.g., lawyer, engineer, etc.) and high risk jobs (e.g., telephone maintenance workers, oil well
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Table of Contents Objectives 2 Introduction to management 3-5 Functions of management 6-7 Benefits of management 8-9 How to improve management? .10-11 ConclusionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦12 BiblographyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..13 Objectives In this short project we will be discussing why management is important within an organisation. The organisation we will be reviewing is Ryanair. Ã¯Æ'Ë What is management? Ã¯Æ'Ë Functions of management Ã¯Æ'Ë Why is management important in an organisation? Ã¯Æ'Ë What are the benefits of management in an organisation? Ã¯Æ'Ë How can management be improved in an organisation?Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Planning: Planning is the foundation of all the functions of management upon which the other three areas should be built. During planning, management must evaluate the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current situation and then developing strategies to achieve these goals, this is called strategic planning. The strategic plan of Ryanair has been to establish itself as EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s leading low-fares airline.Ã¢â¬ Ryanair aims to offer low fares that generate increased passenger traffic while maintaining a continuous focus on cost-containment and operating efficiencies.Ã¢â¬ (www.ryanair.com) Organising: To accomplish the goals outlined during the planning phase managers need to link employees, responsibilities, and resources together through organisation. Henri Fayol stated that Ã¢â¬Å"To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnelÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ . Managers at Ryanair implemented a strategy to keep operation costs low by limiting its fleet primarily to three variants of a single type of aircraft from a single manufacturer most of which are Boeing 737, this reduces the cost of personal training, maintenance and the purchase and storage of spare parts. It also leads to greater flexibility among crews as pilots and engineers are familiar with the aircraft. (www.ryanair.com) Leading: Leaders motivate and communicate with employees, this involves daily personal contact with people to guide and inspire them towardShow MoreRelatedManagement Assignment Ryanair5707 Words Ã |Ã 23 PagesBusiness Management (BM291) Assignment Date: 30/11/09 Ã¢â¬Æ' Table of Contents Introduction 3 Q1. Manager Profile Job Description 3 Assignment 3 Key Accountabilities: 3 Management Roles 4 Meeting challenges 4 Reporting 4 Summary of work experience educational attainment 5 Organisational Chart 6 Q2. Comparisons against FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s key managerial roles 7 Q3. Future challenges of the Ryanair Director of Operations 10 Q4. Effectiveness of the Manager 11 Bibliography 13 QuestionnaireRead MoreOperation and Strategy management for Ryanair2421 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ MSc Management Strategy and Operations Management 2013 / 2014 - GLASGOW MMN220511 Shaishav Kharwar (Mat No: 200813679) Course work 1 Resit Report on RYANAIR Module Leader Dr.Colin Combe Introduction The company chosen in this report is Ryanair in the airline industry. Ryanair is a low cost budget airline travelling across 1600 routes from 57 bases connecting 180 destinations in 29 different countries (RyanairRead MoreLow-Cost Carriers vs Full-Service Airlines905 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe other using a Full-service airline. 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The Ryanair Airline is known for its low airfare andRead MoreE-Commerce Strategies for Airasia1576 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSTRATEGIES Low cost per average seat kilometer AirAsia focused on ensuring a competitive cost structure as its main business strategy. It has been able to achieve a cost per average seat kilometer (ASK) of 2.5 cents, half that of Malaysia Airlines and Ryanair and a third that of EasyJet. AirAsia can lease the B737-300s aircraft at a very competitive market rates due to the harsh global market conditions for the second-hand aircrafts because of the September 11th event in 2001. Low distribution cost AirAsiaRead MoreRyan Air5684 Words Ã |Ã 23 PagesManagement Questions. 1. Leadership a. Michael OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary is credited with the fabulous expansion of ryanair. Compare his managerial style with Richard Brandson of Virgin and Stelios Haj-Ioannou of Easy Jet. Do you see similarities, differences? OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary is said to have a pugnacious and aggressive management style, using a flat management hierarchy whose ethos is to provide a low cost, reliable and competitive service. Ryanair decided to hire OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary and sent him to the States for studyingRead MoreA Report On The Airline Business Industry2170 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesrequirement to have outstanding leadership and culture to achieve a strong business operation and management. The two airlines discussed in this report are Ryan air being the main business of the report with Easyjet being the business for comparison and explanations in leadership styles and culture that are carried out and utilised. Both business offer the same services which are cheap fare flights. RyanAir and Easyjet: Ã¢â¬ ¢ tickets are sold directly to customers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Non luxury flights Ã¢â¬ ¢ Singular type ofRead MoreDogfight over Europe: Ryanair (a) - Case Analysis975 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIndian institute of management Dogfight Over Europe: Ryanair (A) | Case Analysis Overview Cathal Ryan and Declan Ryan have started Ryanair since 1985. For nearly a year, Ryanair had operated a 14-seat turboprop between Waterford and Gatwick Airport on the outskirts of London. The airline targeted low-fare segment market. It initiated service from LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s secondary airports. In terms of competition, Waterford and Gatwick didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pose any challenges. In 1986, Ryanair gained a license to operateRead MoreRelationship Marketing Ryanair3134 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesIntroduction: Ryanair was established in the year 1985 by the RYAN family and has grown from a small airline flying a short hop from Waterford to London, into one of the EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s largest carriers. The company expanded and within 4 years it had 350 employees, 14 aircraft, and carried 600,000 passengers a year. It is currently serving to 26 European Countries with 148 destinations. It operates on 794 different routes daily serving by more than 1050 flights in a day. It has totally 169 aircraftsRead MoreEasyjet and Ryan Air2145 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesIntroduction Amicably, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s airline business industry leadership and culture is imperative and crucial in achieving strong business management and operation. There can be looking at the two airlines specifically, Easyjet and Ryan Air as the focus for explanation and discussion points. Ideally, the product services being offered by RyanAir are cheap fare flights that are most likely the same with Easyjet, offering economic flights to frequent passengers. The core discussion can center on these
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The study of the state, government, and politics. The idea that the study of politics should be Ã¢â¬ËscientificÃ¢â¬â¢ has excited controversy for centuries. What is at stake is the nature of our political knowledge, but the content of the argument has varied enormously. For example, 1741 when Hume published his essay, Ã¢â¬ËThat Politics May Be Reduced to a ScienceÃ¢â¬â¢, his concerns were very different from those of people who have sought to reduce politics to a science in the twentieth century. Although concerned to some degree to imitate the paradigm of Newtonian physics, Humes main objective was to show that some constitutions necessarily worked better than others and that politics was not just a question of personalities. Thus one of his main targets was the famous couplet in Alexander Popes Essay on Man: Ã¢â¬ËFor forms of government let fools contest,? |? Whateer is best administerd is best. Ã¢â¬â¢ B. The Problem In 1968, the eminent political scientist David Easton wrote: Political Science in mid-twentieth century is a discipline in search of its identity. Through the efforts to solve this identity crisis it has begun to show evidence of emerging as an autonomous and independent discipline with a systematic structure of its own. However, the search for identity has been characteristic of political science from its inception on the American scene. Initially, the discipline was confronted with the task of demarcating its intellectual boundaries and severing its organizational ties from other academic fields, particularly history. Subsequently, debate arose over goals, methods, and appropriate subject matter as political scientists tried to resolve the often conflicting objectives of its four main scholarly traditions: (1) legalism, or constitutionalism; (2) activism and reform; (3) philosophy, or the history of political ideas; and (4) science. By the late twentieth century, the discipline had evolved through four periods outlined by Albert Somit and Joseph Tanenhaus in their informative work The Development of American Political Science: From Burgess to Behavioralism (1967). The four periods are the formative (1880Ã¢â¬â1903), the emergent (1903Ã¢â¬â1921), the middle years (1921Ã¢â¬â1945), and disciplinary maturity (1945Ã¢â¬â1990). It follows from this Kantian conception of the basis of science that there can only be one science, which is physics. This science applies just as much to people, who are physical beings, as it does to asteroids: like the theistic God, Kantian physics is unique or it is not itself. Biology, chemistry, engineering et al. re forms of physics, related and reducible to the fundamental constituents of the universe. The social studies are not, according to critics of political science, and become merely narrow and sterile if they attempt to ape the methods and assumptions of the natural sciences. The understanding we seek of human beings must appreciate their individual uniqueness and freedom of will; understanding people is based on our ability to see events from their point of view, the kind of insight that Weber called verstehen. In short, the distinction between science and non-science, in its most significant sense, is a distinction between the natural sciences and the humanities; the two are fundamentally different and politics is a human discipline. However, there are a number of objections to this harsh dichotomy between politics and science. Semantically, it might be said, this account reads too much into the concept of science which, etymologically, indicates only a concern with knowledge in virtually any sense. Wissenschaft in German, scienza in Italian, and science in French do not raise the profound philosophical questions which have been attached to the English word science. There are also many contemporary philosophers who seek to undermine the scientific nature of natural science. Inspired, particularly, by Thomas Kuhns The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) they argue that science itself is not determined by the absolute requirements of its discourse, but is structured by the societies in which it operates. Thus real physics is more like politics than it is like the Kantian ideal of physics, and it has no more claim to be a science than has politics. B . What are the four main scholarly traditions of Political science? C. What is legalism? D. What is constitutionalism? E. What is activism and reform? F. What is philosophy? G. The history of political ideas? H. Science C. Statement of the Problem (1) Legalism, or constitutionalism; (2) Activism and reform; (3) Philosophy, or the history of political ideas; and (4) Science. Legalism, Legalism is a political philosophy that does not address higher questions pertaining to the nature and purpose of existence. It is concerned with the most effective way of governing society. The legalist tradition derives from the principle that the best way to control human behaviour is through written law rather than through ritual, custom or ethics. The two principal sources of Legalist doctrine were the Book of Lord Shang and the Han Fei-tzu. The Book of Lord Shang teaches that laws are designed to maintain the stability of the state from the people, who are innately selfish and ignorant. There is no such thing as objective goodness or virtue; it is obedience that is of paramount importance. The Han Fei-tzu advocates a system of laws that enable the ruler to govern efficiently and even ruthlessly. Text books apart from law books are useless, and rival philosophies such as Moism and Confucianism are dismissed as vermin. The ruler is to conduct himself with great shrewdness, keeping his ministers and family at a distance and not revealing his intentions. Strong penalties should deter people from committing crime. History The origins of Legalist thought are unclear. Some would date it as far back as the teaching of the 7th century BCE statesman Kuan Chung (d. 645 BCE), prime minister of the state of Chi, whose teachings are supposed to be represented by the Kuan-tzu. Other figures associated with an early form of legalism are Shang Yang (d. 338 BCE), the putative author of The Book of Lord Shang, and Shen Pu-hai (d. 337 BCE). Shang Yang was particularly important for the development of legalism since it was he who served as governor of the state of Chin and strengthened it to the extent that it was able to unify China in the following century. It was, however, Han Fei-tzu (d. 33 BCE) who systematised the various strands of Legalism in his work The Han Fei-tzu. Han Fei-tzu had been taught by the Confucianist Hsun-tzu, whose philosophy claimed that people were basically evil but could be guided towards goodness. Han Fei-tzu adopted and developed Hsun-tzus negative pessimistic attitude towards human nature by teaching that people were so bad that t hey needed to be controlled by strong government and strict laws. This principle was put into practice by the Chin dynasty, which on unifying China in 221 BCE, destroyed the feudal system and placed the country under a single monarch. Under the Chin dynasty land was privatised, a uniform law code was established, and weights, measures and currency were standardised. Confucianism was severely persecuted; hundreds of Confucian scholars were killed and virtually all Confucian texts were destroyed. The two most powerful figures in the Ching dynasty were Chin Shih Huang Ti (d. 210 BCE), the first emperor, and the prime minister, Li Ssu (d. 208 BCE). The death of Li Ssu created a power vacuum which led to peasant uprisings and rebellions that broke out all over the country. In 207 BCE the Chin dynasty was overthrown and replaced by the Han dynasty, which favoured Confucianism. The viciousness of the Chin dynasty served to discredit Legalism. In spite of this legalism left its heritage in the form of a strongly centralised political system that would define Chinese government up until the present day and influence despotic Chinese rulers. When, for example, in 1973 Mao Tse Tung launched a campaign against his political opponents he identified himself with the first Chin emperor. Activism and reform Activism onsists of intentional efforts to promote, impede or direct social, political, economic, or environmental change. Activism can take a wide range of forms from writing letters to newspapers or politicians, political campaigning, economic activism such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing businesses, rallies, street marches, strikes, sit-ins, and hunger strikes. Activists can function in roles as public officials, as in judicial activism. Arthur Schlesinger Jr. introduced the term judicial activism in a January 1947 Fortune magazine article titled The Supreme Court: 1947. Philosophy s the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. The word philosophy comes from the Greek (philosophia), which literally means love of wisdom. Science (from Latin scientia, meaning knowledge) is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In an older and closely related meaning (found, for example, in Aristotle), science refers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained (see History and philosophy below). Since classical antiquity science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern era the words science and philosophy were sometimes used interchangeably in the English language. By the 17th century, natural philosophy (which is today called natural science) was considered a separate branch of philosophy. However, science continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern terms such as library science or political science. In modern use, science more often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. It is often treated as synonymous with Ã¢â¬Ënatural and physical scienceÃ¢â¬â¢, and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use. D. Importance of the Study While both behaviorism and positive political theory exemplify the commitment to scientific rigor hoped for by Charles Merriam, the Cold War development of area studies had a less direct relationship to its predecessors. Prior to World War II, Americans had been inwardly focused; during this earlier era, comparative politics signified contrasting European parliamentary-style democracy with the American presidential model. However, with the rise of Adolf Hitlers Germany and Joseph Stalins Soviet Union in the 1930s and 1940s, it became evident that democracy needed to be assessed in comparison to fascism and totalitarianism. As the world broke into the two camps of Eastern communism and Western democracy in the 1950s and 1960s, and American political leaders required detailed knowledge of Eastern bloc nations and of Southeast Asia, political science departments and specialized institutes responded to this need. These undertakings were generously funded by the National Defense Education Act (NDEA); from 1958 to 1973 the NDEA Title IV provided $68. 5 million to the approximately 100 language and area centers. By 1973, these centers had produced 35,500 B. A. s, 14,700 M. A. s, and over 5,000 Ph. D. s. Area studies focused on questions of modernization and industrialization and strove to understand the differing developmental logic of non-Western cultures; they embraced diverse methods for understanding native languages and native cultures and remained skeptical of approaches to comparative politics adopting universalizing assumptions. Lucian W. Pye, Robert E. Ward, and Samuel P. Huntington championed the approach, with Huntingtons Clash of Civilizations (1996) epitomizing the perspective afforded by the field. E. Definition of Terms Legalism, Legalism is a political philosophy that does not address higher questions pertaining to the nature and purpose of existence. It is concerned with the most effective way of governing society. The legalist tradition derives from the principle that the best way to control human behaviour is through written law rather than through ritual, custom or ethics. The two principal sources of Legalist doctrine were the Book of Lord Shang and the Han Fei-tzu. The Book of Lord Shang teaches that laws are designed to maintain the stability of the state from the people, who are innately selfish and ignorant. There is no such thing as objective goodness or virtue; it is obedience that is of paramount importance. The Han Fei-tzu advocates a system of laws that enable the ruler to govern efficiently and even ruthlessly. Text books apart from law books are useless, and rival philosophies such as Moism and Confucianism are dismissed as vermin. The ruler is to conduct himself with great shrewdness, keeping his ministers and family at a distance and not revealing his intentions. Strong penalties should deter people from committing crime. Activism and reform Activism onsists of intentional efforts to promote, impede or direct social, political, economic, or environmental change. Activism can take a wide range of forms from writing letters to newspapers or politicians, political campaigning, economic activism such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing businesses, rallies, street marches, strikes, sit-ins, and hunger strikes. Activists can function in roles as public officials, as in judicial activism. Arthur Schlesinger Jr. introduced the term judicial activism in a January 1947 Fortune magazine article titled The Supreme Court: 1947. Philosophy s the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. The word philosophy comes from the Greek (philosophia), which literally means love of wisdom. Science (from Latin scientia, meaning knowledge) is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of te stable explanations and predictions about the universe. In an older and closely related meaning (found, for example, in Aristotle), science refers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained (see History and philosophy below). Since classical antiquity science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern era the words science and philosophy were sometimes used interchangeably in the English language. By the 17th century, natural philosophy (which is today called natural science) was considered a separate branch of philosophy. However, science continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern terms such as library science or political science. In modern use, science more often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. It is often treated as synonymous with Ã¢â¬Ënatural and physical scienceÃ¢â¬â¢, and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use. F. Review of the Related Study In the 1990s, disciplinary divisions existed over the efficacy and merits of the rational choice approach to politics, with many American political science departments divided into camps for and against. In leading centers for rational choice, including Rochester, Carnegie Mellon, California Institute of Technology, and George Washington, as many as half of the faculty adopted this method of study. Disciplinary controversy culminated in the publication of Donald P. Green and Ian Shapiros Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory (1994), and the responding issue of Critical Review (winter-spring 1995). Whereas the future of this disciplinary strife remains unclear, it is clear that the rational choice theory has an ascendant position across the social sciences and in the spheres of business, law, and public policy. American political science continues to question its identity, and to reflect on appropriate research methodology; methodological pluralism continues to reign. The fields continued self-examination reflects three independent axes. One embodies the two extremes of particular and localized studies versus universalizing analyses; a second is defined by the extremes of considering either groups or individuals as the key to analysis; and a third is represented by the belief that a normative stance is unavoidable at one extreme, and by a firm commitment to the possibility of objectivity at the other extreme. In the midst of the numerous topics and methods structuring political science, one certainty is that it is no longer possible for a single individual to master the entire field. G. Summary he study of government and political processes, institutions, and behavior. Government and politics have been studied and commented on since the time of the ancient Greeks. However, it is only with the general systematization of the social sciences in the last 100 years that political science has emerged as a separate definable area of study. Political science is commonly divided into a number of subfields, the most prominent being political theory, national government, comparative government, international relations, and special areas shared with other social sciences such as sociology, psychology, and economics. In practice, these subfields overlap. Political theory encompasses the following related areas: the study of the history of political thought; the examination of questions of justice and morality in the context of the relationships between individuals, society, and government; and the formulation of conceptual approaches and models in order to understand more fully political and governmental processes. The study of national government focuses on the political system of the researchers particular country, including the legal and constitutional arrangements and institutions; the interaction of various levels of government, other social and political groups, and the individual; and proposals for improving governmental structure and policy. Comparative government covers many of the same subjects but from the perspective of parallel political behavior in several countries, regions, or time periods. International relations deals both with the more traditional areas of study, such as international law, diplomacy, political economy, international organizations, and other forms of contact between nation states, and with the development of general, scientific models of international political systems. None of the political science subfields can be clearly separated. All of them, for example, deal with questions closely associated with political theory. Valuable and sophisticated discussions of almost all the areas of political science, including the areas now generally classified under such titles as political sociology, can be found throughout intellectual history as far back as Plato and Aristotle. Through the centuries, the questions of political science have been discussed in contexts varying with the changing perspectives of the time. During the Middle Ages, for example, the major concerns revolved around the problem of where the state stood in relation to man and his God. Karl Marx, on the other hand, viewed political questions in the context of societys economic structure. Modern political science stresses the importance of using political concepts and models that are subject to empirical validation and that may be employed in solving practical political problems. H. Conclusion and recommendation This research is all about the study of the state, government, and politics. The idea that the study of politics should be Ã¢â¬ËscientificÃ¢â¬â¢ has excited controversy for centuries. What is at stake is the nature of our political knowledge, but the content of the argument has varied enormously.